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MBINNDIIN: Hol ko addunoo ndogen saka ndarto-ɗen baɗte Celluka? Convertir en PDF Version imprimable Suggérer par mail
Dernière mise à jour : ( 07-07-2017 )
 

Ecrit par Ibraahiima Malal Saar, le 07-07-2017 08:04

Pages vues : 3967    

Publié dans : Les News, Langue et linguistique Pulaar


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J
annguɓe Pulaar-Fulfulde puɗɗiima heewde, yettere Alla; winndooɓe mbilii e laylayte renndo, ɗuum ne ko barke moolanaaɗo wonande leñol ngol. Ɗuɗe ena ustoo, jannguɓe ena ɓeydoo, kalaas! Wadde doosɗe binndaaɗe nattii heɓaade, gooto kala waɗtii winndirde no weliraa walla no yiyri woɗɓe ena binndir.  Ɓeen ne nana mbinnda huutoraade "doosɗe ɗaayɗe" ɗe hay gooto anndaa ɗo ummii, teeŋti e keewal e teelal inɗe. Hol mo yiyaani konngi bayɗi hono "hoyre", "dewbo", "felde" ɗo fotnoo winndeede "hoore", "debbo", "fedde"?
Yiyaama nih binndi ɓurɗi ɗiin haawnaade tugnaaɗe ɗo hay gooto faamaani so wonaa ɓeen winndirooɓe noon. En njiyi "hitaande" ena wonti "hitaalnde" sabu tan keewal mum ena waɗi alkulal "L"! Hii mande e aduna teelal inɗe waɗti tugnaade e keewal ngam laɓɓinde e sellinde hoore mum. Goo kay adii ɗiɗi! Wadde ko goo hokkata ɗiɗi ɗo tugnii sabu ɗiɗi ko goo e goo. Ndeke ko teelal hokkata keewal doosgal wonaa luutndal mum. Konngi coomɗi kaawis hono "powbi" (pobbi), "ñewbe" (ñebbe), cawbi (cabbi)! So ɗii konngi ena njalnii ne, won jagguɓe e majji no hebbere seŋortoo e tuuba, ena calii woppude. E sikki maɓɓe, tawde teelal cabbi ko sawru, wadde ɗaɗol ngol ko "saw", ngol wonta "caw"! Ko noon ne e teelal ñebbe, tawde ɗaɗol "ñew" ngol ittaa ko e teelal konngol ngol hono "ñewre"!
Hol to ɗee doosɗe njanngaa? Mi yettinii laaɓndal ngal ceerno Fari Siilat Kah sabu makko wonde hannde ɓurno humpitaade doosɗe Pulaar. Ko kaŋko ardii akademii ɗemɗe Senegaal etee ko kaŋko woni hooreejo goomu Fulfulde to Akademii Ɗemɗe Afrik. Ko o ɗemɗiyaŋke dawtuɗo haa ko ɗoo waawi haaɗde. Ko o biɗtoowo kadi to IFAN (Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire). Miɗo anndi mo gila kitaale ngon-mi e Kawtal Janngooɓe Pulaar Fulfulde, kono gite amen meeɗi laaɓdude nay ko e hitaande 2014! Ko yankinaare makko ɓurata haawde ma so a yiyii mo gadanol. Kono ko o ganndal ɓolal.
Ngati mi yettinii ceerno Fari laaɓndal ngal, wonaa noon ngam anndude ko doosɗe mbiyi, kono ko ngam o wara haala kaa ɗoon, kecce ɗee ngoppee, yimɓe njokkoo e hammadi kanndiiji mum'en!
Hade am gaynude haalde tawi o finnii... "Mbete ɗum ena lutti haa jooni? Gila 1980 horaama yoo yimɓe ngoppu wiyde ena ñeŋngoo doosɗe ɗe hay ɗemɗiyaŋke gooto meeɗaa jannginde ɗum'en. Wonde ngenndiyaŋke e wonde ɗemɗiyaŋke ko geɗe ɗiɗi ceertuɗe, goɗɗondirɗe. Ko ɗum duuyte ɓole sabu ena anndaa wonde duurtugol ngol ɗemɗiyaŋkaagal wiyata "gémination" ngol, wonaa e Pulaar tan woodi. Ena woodi e ɗemɗe Afrik keewɗe!".
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Wootere e tugnorɗe Celluka
E wiyde ceerno Fari, ko raɓɓiɗi koo yoo binndoowo fof anndu ko nanondiraa e pelle haa to Goomu Fulcom ko debbo, hoore, pelle, ñebbe, leɗɗe! Kala binndorɗo no seertiri e ɗum yoo faam yaltii celluka. O wiyi heewɓe, fuunti ɗum'en ko ena nanndi e ganndal biɗtangal winndirde keewal "lekki" "lekɗe" walla ngal "rewɓe" winndiree "dewbo" sabu ena yiyee heen ɗaɗol kelme ɗee! Ena yooɗa wonɓe yimɓe so njiyi oo kaawis jooɗɗo e mbinndiin ɗemngal men. Kono fof ɓuri fawaade ko e jumre kono wonaa ganndal.
Yeewtere wulnde waɗaama baɗte majjum e laylayte renndo ɗee, teeŋti e Facebook. E yiɗde fooɗtude hakkillaaji e ɗee caɗe ɗemngal men, kadi e tikjaade ndee winndannde nde ɓooy-ɗen eɓɓude, ko enen udditi yeewtere ndee. Ko adii fof, udditir-ɗen nde ko ƴorɓaade won e winndoyaŋkooɓe feerotooɓe e ngoo maayo juumre. Eɓe keewi, ɓe limotaako. Mbiy-ɗen ɗii binndi ko kaangaaɗi, sabu ɗi ɗooftaaki hay doosgal gootal! Ndokku-ɗen yeruuji hono "pedle", "lekɗe", "hoyre", "dewbo". Bajo ɗoon tan jaawinooɓe "yambaa" celluka ɓee laawii. Ceerno Fari Kah siiftinii-en wonde ɓoorniiɗo kufne ngenndiyaŋke fof ena heewi faaydude hoore mum e ɗemɗiyaŋke, kono en toɗɗaaki mokala. Mawɗo gooto wiynoo: "aan ƴoƴi, miin ɓooyi"; eɗum nanndi e ko ko njaabii-mi e ɓernde won e sukaaɓe men jogiiɓe tolnooji moolanaaɗi e ɗemngal men. Miɗo waawi sowtude sowtude heen innde Jaayre Pinal (oon cuus-mi), gooto e ɓeen, jeyaaɗo to wuro men Haayre Golleere, e nder Fuuta Muritani. En mbaawaa tonngude ɗoo fof miijo makko heen. Kono eɗen mbaawi raɓɓiɗinde tan, mbiyen ko e jaawinooɓe (yambaa celluka) ɓurɓe huɓɓude ɓee o jeyaa. En keɓii kadi seedanteeje lobbe ummoraade yoga e ɓe keeɗen yiyde ena ndilla e ɗemngal ngal. Ko heewi e feeriyaŋkooɓe e maayo juumre ngoo etiima hokkude dalillaaji mum'en ɗi cikki ko tugnorɗe ɗemngal ngal e kuuɓal. Kono hay gooto e maɓɓe addaani doosngal ummingal e celluka nanondiraaka, kadi hokka iwdi mum. Ko goonga enen ne eti-ɗen tan ko hollude ɗum waawaa wonde doosgal sabu so ngaal rewanooma, en keɓat konngi ɗaayɗi hono "powbi" (pobbi), "ñewbe" (ñebbe), "lewbi" e ko nanndi e ɗiin ɗi ngoodaani e Pulaar. Wiyde tan maa ɗaɗol yalta e helmere ko waasde anndude doosgal ɗemɗe Afrik keewɗe wiyde: "No winndirtee, noon janngirtee"! Wadde hay gooto yamiraaka yoo winndir nih, wowlira goɗɗum. No mbinndir-ɗaa "lewbi", ko noon ngowlirtaa. A yamiraaka yo a wowlir "lewbi" nih: lebbi. Ɗum ko dolaɗum e binndol men tee alaa doosgal goodngal tawa ena wayli ɗum. Hay gooto anndaa ɗo yimɓe janngi wonde wowlaandu ena luurda e binndol! 

So ɗum ɓennii yoo faame tigi waɗi en addude ndee yeewtere ko dillinde keeri njenanaagu, mbete ɗemngal ngal ena ɓeydoo yuɓɓude so silkitiraama ganndal ɗemɗiyaŋkeewal toowngal biyeteengal Celluka Ɓesnoowa MBaylitoowa (Transformational Generative Grammar).
So ɗee kelme ena celli to bannge hakkille ne, eɗe luurdi e sarɗiiji ɗemɗiyaŋkaagal ɓurɗi hoyde. Juumre ndee ko wiyde "Wonaa ko winndaa kala janngee". Nde dokkitaagol Pulaar fuɗɗii ndee, nanondiraa ko "No wowlirtee, noon winndirtee". Heewɓe nganndaa ngal doosgal garwanal tugnorgal binndol men.
So ɗum ɓennii mi hokkii yeruuji goɗɗi toɗɗiiɗi doosɗe ɗemɗiyaŋkaagal : binndol ñemmbat haala, kono tinndintaa ɗum. Ɗoon kadi ko doosgal tiiɗngal. Hay gooto waawaa wiyde ena salmina dewbo, cawbi, lewbi, wutaalndu sbu ɗadol gasirngol w fof ena waɗi caɗe, hono gonɗi dow ɗii. Yanti heen eɗen njaawi yejjitde doosɗe walla en njiyataa cuuɗiiɗe:
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Haatumeere lomtondiral alkule
Ƴeewee yeruuji dow ɗii. Koko anndaa e Pulaar wonde keewal b ko w (batula>watulaaɓe; boobo>woobuɓe). Wadde e nde dewbo>rewɓe "w" dewbo oo ena foti wontude "b", kisa de(w>b)bo hokka "debbo"! Ɗaɗol wiyaaka teeŋtaani, kono ko heewi e ɗo w ɓeydetee e helmere wonaa ko selli sabu mi hollirii dow-ɗoo wonde w e keewal ko b.
Ko h tan jaɓetee yoo heddo hono: wahre, sahre, yahre ekn... Waɗi noon ko "h" oo tawtoytee e keewal. Yeru: yaHre/jaHe: yaHde; Mahde/mahooɓe. E nder deftere wootere tugnorde nde ndutti-ɗen ɗee balɗe, eɗen njiya heen haatuleere alkule lomtondirooje ɗee. Ndeen woni "Njuɓɓudi Kalimaaji e Pirlitte Golle" nde mawɓe men Aliyu Muhammadu, Jibi Umar MBooc e Baylaa Kulibali mballifii e hitaande 1990. Eɓe kollita heen wonde "y" ena lomtondira e "j" e keewal walla pirlital gollal. Ɗum teeŋtinde wonde so a wiyi "woyde" a waawaa artirde ɗaɗol "woy" e keewal waya no "boyji nih (hono no njiyru-ɗen ndee juumre haaɓniinde nih. Keewl ngal wonata ko "bojji" sabu "y" gonɗo e "woy" oo wontata ko "j" (yaawde>jaawɗe).
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Ko waɗi "dewbo" waawaa sellude?

Celluka wonaa kañum ɗowata ɗemngal, kono sifoto ɗum tan (doosgal ɗemɗiyaŋkaagal). Selli tan koko yuɓɓi!
Ƴeew jooni baɗe luurdaaɗe e Engeleere hono "verbes irréguiers". Doosngal waɗi ko yo ɗe mbaɗ "ed" e pirlitgol gollal timmungal. Kono won e baɗe njaɓataa ɗum wano "go" (wontata ko "went"), walla "be" (wonta "was"). Ɗooftaaki doosgal kono ena selli. Ɗum waɗi celluka ena waylee ngam yuɓɓa kono waasa rewde e ko sikkaa woni doosngal. Jooni kiba so Engeleere ena waɗnoo jaawinooɓe yambaa mum'en (mmj)? Ɓeen njogori wiyde ko "goed", "beed" ekn... Ɗum wonaa jalnotoo? Koo noon "dewbo" (debbo) walla "boyji" (bojji) mbayi jalnaade!
Ko dalillaaji celluɗi ɗi ngulotaako. Kadi wonaa e am ummii, ko e sarɗiiji ɗi ɗemɗiyaŋkooɓe fof ngollortoo. Dalillaaji fof mi hokkii, kono alaa a majji camminaaɗi e ndee yeewtere tawo. Ko wiyde alaa tan. Ɗum ɓeydantaa en ganndal.
Faandaare am heen ko nawde Pulaar yeeso sabu ko ɗum woni nguurndam am. Wadde mi sikkaani miɗo adda geɗe ɗe njuɓɓaani. Heddii ko jaɓee walla waasa... Ena woodi winndirooɓe noon, kono sellaani. So yimɓe fof ko laamɓe, laamaaɗo alaa... Wadde laamu ngu alaa laamaaɓe, yoo Alla suur.

Kuɗol Ibraahiima Malal Saar
Hooreejo PULAAGU.COM





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Tags : celluka, pulaar, keewal, teelel, ɗaɗi konngol, mbinndiin, fulfulde


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